(a) Once a determination of the Secretary to impose a penalty has become final, the penalty will be collected by the Secretary, subject to the first sentence of 42 U.S.C. 1320a- 7a(f).
(b) The penalty may be recovered in a civil action brought in the United States district court for the district where the respondent resides, is found, or is located.
(c) The amount of a penalty, when finally determined, or the amount agreed upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sum then or later owing by the United States, or by a State agency, to the respondent.
(d) Matters that were raised or that could have been raised in a hearing before an ALJ, or in an appeal under 42 U.S.C. 1320a- 7a(e), may not be raised as a defense in a civil action by the United States to collect a penalty under this part.